دیکشنری آمریکایی-انگلیسی لانگمن
Publisher: Longman Publishing Group
ویرایش چهارم فرهنگ لغت آمریکایی-انگلیسی لانگمن برای رفع نیازهای واقعی زبان آموزان بازبینی شده است. در توضیح معنی کلمات فقط از ۲۰۰۰ کلمه پرکاربرد انگلیسی استفاده شده تا فهم معانی واژه ها برای زبان آموزان آسان باشد.
Longman Dictionary of American English, Special Edition
The 4th edition of the Longman Dictionary of American English has been researched and revised to meet the real needs of learners of English. The up-dated text now includes thousands of words for content areas such as Science, Economics and Social Science, as well as Word Origins and updated thesaurus boxes that give extra help with vocabulary acquisition.
All Longman dictionaries are based on the authentic language data in the Longman Corpus Network. This unique computerized language database now contains over 400 million words from all types of written texts, and from real conversations recorded across the US.
The Corpus tells us how frequently words and phrases are used, so there is no guesswork in deciding which ones students need to know most. The Corpus also shows which grammar patterns are the most important to illustrate, which important new words and idioms people use every day, and which words are frequently used together (collocations). We take our example sentences from the Corpus, and this makes the language come alive as never before.
The definitions in Longman dictionaries are written using only the 2,000 most common English words – the Longman American Defining Vocabulary. Longman pioneered the use of a limited vocabulary as the best way to guarantee that definitions are clear and easy to understand. The meaning you want is easy to find. Words that have a large number of meanings have short, clear signposts to guide you to the right meaning quickly.
The comprehensive grammatical information is easy to understand and use. Important patterns are highlighted in the example sentences, so that you can see at a glance how to use a word in a sentence.
The 4th edition of the Longman Dictionary of American English is the result of extensive research into learners needs and abilities. Thesaurus boxes explain thousands of synonyms and antonyms to help users expand their vocabulary, so that instead of using the same words all the time, such as the word angry, for example, they learn how to use related words such as annoyed, irritated, furious, etc. Additional Thesaurus boxes now also help learners expand their academic and content vocabulary.
The writers have also used their knowledge from years of teaching to analyze the Longman Learner’s Corpus, which is a computerized collection of over 8 million words of writing in English by learners. By studying the errors students make in essays and exams, the writers were able to give clear, helpful usage information throughout the dictionary – in the definitions, example sentences, and usage notes – to help students avoid common errors.
The grammar codes and labels are inside the front cover, and the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) pronunciation charts are inside the back cover, so they are always easy to find and use.
Whether you are writing an essay, sending an e-mail, or talking with friends, the Longman Dictionary of American English will help you choose the right words, understand them clearly, and use them correctly.